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Core | Papers | Sciences

The Sciences Papers

Overview

The Sciences Papers of the Core Curriculum are conceived and developed to deeply acquaint students with forms of creation, expression, knowledge, participation, thought and understanding pertaining to the sciences and their application. The Core Sciences Papers will thus provide the following:

Objects of Inquiry

— sustained time with and deep attention to objects and products of scientific inquiry and application, including those produced and studied over time in the formal, natural, social, medical and technological disciplines.

Shifts in Histories, Traditions, Conversations

— overview and understanding of key shifts in histories and traditions of, as well as ongoing conversations among, practitioners and scholars of science — as they work through enduring and important ideas, theories, practices, problems and questions in their fields and societies.

Engaged Understanding and Practice

— higher-level understanding of and engagement in modes of scientific knowledge, scientific inquiry and scientific practice (including application) of continued and emerging importance to contemporary local and global societies, including those where formal, natural, social and applied scientists as well as students live and carry out their present and future work.

Integration Across Areas

— and finally: adept, informed and creative integration of knowledge in the sciences with that in the arts, civics and the humanities.

The Formal Sciences Paper

Sciences | Formal

Provided below are definitions of terms to be used for purposes of these Codes and Policies, all official documents, policies and statements, and for any action, activity, communication, operation or participation in, within, with, for, on behalf of, in reference to or otherwise pertaining to The Ikoku Foundations, their divisions, series, subsidiaries and affiliates, and their Products and Services, including the Sites.

Core | Listings

I — Writing & Orature

Framing | Methods | Theories

On Monogenesis/Polygenesis
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Symbol/Script/Writing
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Writing/Literature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Orature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Africa

Carpentras Stele, Egypt
Primary Reading: Carpentras Stele, Egypt (?850 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Menes Tomb, Egypt
Primary Reading: Menes Tomb, Abydos, Egypt (3200-3000 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Nsibidi System, Nigeria
Primary Reading: Nsibidi Symbols, Nigeria (400-1400 AD).

Further:

— TBD.

Seth-Peribsen Tomb, Egypt
Primary Reading: Seth-Peribsen Tomb, Abydos, Egypt (2890-2686 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Rosetta Stone, Egypt
Primary Reading: Rosetta Stone, Memphis, Egypt (196 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Americas

Rongorongo Inscriptions, Easter Island, South America
Primary Reading: Rongorongo Inscriptions, Easter Island, Chile, South America (unknown).

Further:

— TBD.

Quipu, Andes, South America
Primary Reading: Quipu, Andes, South America (1100AD-1532AD and present-day).

Further:

— TBD.

Yugtun System, Alaska, North America
Primary Reading: Yugtun System, Alaska, North America (1900AD).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Asia

Ahiram Sarcophagus, Lebanon
Primary Reading: Sarcophagus of Ahiram, Byblos, Lebanon (850 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Ashoka Edicts, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan
Primary Reading: Edicts of Ashoka, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan (268-232 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Ashurbanipal Library, Iraq
Primary Reading: Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, Kouyunjik (ancient Nineveh, capital of Assyria), Iraq  (668–627 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Behistun Inscription, Iran
Primary Reading: Behistun Inscription, Mount Behistun, Iran (522-486 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Bogazköy Archive, Turkey
Primary Reading: Bogazköy Archive, (ancient Hattusas, capital of Hittite State), Turkey (522-486 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Canaanite and Aramaic Inscriptions, Wide Mediterranean Region
Primary Reading: Canaanite and Aramaic Inscriptions, Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Georgia, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Pakistan, Palestine, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey (1020-100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Jemdet Nasr Site, Iraq
Primary Reading: Jemdet Nasr Site, Tell al-Uhaymir, Iraq  (3100-2900 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Kish Tablet, Iraq
Primary Reading: Kish Tablet, Tell al-Uhaymir, Iraq  (3350-3200 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Kharosthi Inscriptions, Afghanistan, China, Pakistan
Primary Reading: Kharosthi Inscriptions, Afghanistan, China, Pakistan (600 BCE and 300-200 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Nabataean Inscriptions, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia
Primary Reading: Nabataean Inscriptions, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia (200-100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Susa Site, Iran, Iraq, Turkey
Primary Reading: Susa Site, Zagros Mountains, Iran, Iraq and Turkey (4200-1100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Tayma Stones, Sudia Arabia
Primary Reading: Tayma Stones, Sudia Arabia (500-400 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Xerxes I Inscription, Turkey
Primary Reading: Xerxes I Inscription, Van Fortress, Lake Van, Turkey  (486-465 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Yinxu Site, China
Primary Reading: Yinxu Site, Xiaotun Village, Anyang City, Henan Province, China  (1250-1046 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Australasia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Europe

Duenos Inscription, Italy
Primary Reading: Duenos Inscription, Quirinal Hill, Rome, Italy (600-400 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Etruscan Cockerel Vase, Italy
Primary Reading: Etruscan Cockerel Vase, Tuscany, Italy (650-600 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Marsiliana Tablet, Italy
Primary Reading: Marsiliana Tablet, Marsiliana, Tuscany, Italy (700 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Africa

Banyanga. Mwindo Epic
Primary Reading: Banyanga/Shé-kárisi Rureke/Kahombo Mateene/Daniel Biebuyck. Mwindo Epic (?-1969 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Old Kingdom and Pyramid Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Old Kingdom and Pyramid Texts (?-2400 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Middle Kingdom and Coffin Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Middle Kingdom and Coffin Texts and Book of Two Ways (?-2100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. New Kingdom Texts and Book of the Dead
Primary Reading: Egyptians. New Kingdom Texts and Book of the Dead (?-1550 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Late Period and Ptolemaic Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Late Period and Ptolemaic Texts and Book of Breathing and Book of Traversing Eternity (?-350 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Mandingo. Sundiata Epic
Primary Reading: Mandingo/Djeli Mamoudou Kouyaté/DT Niane. Sundiata Epicc (?-1960 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Ptahhotep. The Maxims of Ptahhotep
Primary Reading: Ptahhotep. The Maxims of Ptahhotep (2375-2350 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Americas

K’iche/Ximénez. Popol Vuh
Primary Reading: K’iche/Ximénez. Popol Vuh (?-1701).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec-Mayans. Books of Chilam Balam
Primary Reading: Yucatec-Mayans. Books of Chilam Balam (?-1700s).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Asia

Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Arabs. One Thousand and One Nights
Primary Reading: Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Arabs. One Thousand and One Nights (?-1200s).

Further:

— TBD.

Chinese/Confucius. Classic of Poetry
Primary Reading: Chinese/Confucius. Classic of Poetry (1046-600 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Indo-Aryans/Vyasa. Mahabharata
Primary Reading: Indo-Aryans/Vyasa. Mahabharata (400 BCE-300s).

Further:

— TBD.

Indo-Aryans. Ramayana
Primary Reading: Indo-Aryans. Ramayana (600 BCE-200s).

Further:

— TBD.

Indo-Aryans/Vyasa. The Vedas
Primary Reading: Indo-Aryans/Vyasa. The Vedas (?-1400/700 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Mesopotamians/Sîn-lēqi-unninni. Epic of Gilgamesh
Primary Reading: Mesopotamians/Sîn-lēqi-unninni. Epic of Gilgamesh (2100-1200 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sumerians/Enheduanna. The Sumerian Temple Hymns
Primary Reading: Sumerians/Enheduanna. The Sumerian Temple Hymns (2300 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Australasia

Māori/Ngāti Rangiwewehi. The Sons of Heaven
Primary Reading: Māori/Ngāti Rangiwewehi. The Sons of Heaven (?-1849).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Europe

Greeks/Homer. The Iliad
Primary Reading: Homer. The Iliad (?-630 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Greeks/Homer. The Odyssey
Primary Reading: Homer. The Iliad (?-566 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

South Slavic Bards. The Epic Cycles
Primary Reading: South Slavic Bards. The Building of Skadar (1300s-1815) and Songs of Heroes and of the Frontier Warriors (1300s-1937).

Further:

— TBD.

II — BCE till 600AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

III — 600AD-1599AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

IV — 1600AD-1699AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Africa

al-Sa’di. Tarikh al-Sudan or History of the Sudan
Primary Reading: al-Sa’di. Tarikh al-Sudan or History of the Sudan (1655).

Further:

— TBD.

Mahmud Kati/Ibn al-Mukhtar. Tarikh al-Fattash
Primary Reading: Mahmud Kati/Ibn al-Mukhtar. Tarikh al-Fattash (1600s).

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

V — 1700AD-1799AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VI — 1800AD-1899AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Americas

James, CLR. The Black Jacobins
Primary Reading: James, CLR. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (1938/1963).

Further: — TBD.

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino. Facundo
Primary Reading: Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino. Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism (1845).

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Europe

Mary Prince. The History of Mary Prince, A West Indian Slave
Primary Reading: Mary Prince/Thomas Pringle. The History of Mary Prince, A West Indian Slave, Related by Herself (1831).

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Africa

Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative
Primary Reading: Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789).

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Americas

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845).

Further:

— TBD.

Jacob, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Primary Reading: Jacob, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861).

Further: — TBD.

Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave
Primary Reading: Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave (1853).

Further:

— TBD.

Truth, Sojourner. Ain’t I a Woman?
Primary Reading: Truth, Sojourner. Ain’t I a Woman? Speech to the Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio (1851).

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VII — 1900AD-1945AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VIII — 1945AD-present

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Histories | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Primary Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Scholarship | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

The Medical Sciences Paper

Sciences | Medical

Provided below are definitions of terms to be used for purposes of these Codes and Policies, all official documents, policies and statements, and for any action, activity, communication, operation or participation in, within, with, for, on behalf of, in reference to or otherwise pertaining to The Ikoku Foundations, their divisions, series, subsidiaries and affiliates, and their Products and Services, including the Sites.

Core | Listings

I — Writing & Orature

Framing | Methods | Theories

On Monogenesis/Polygenesis
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Symbol/Script/Writing
Primary Reading: Introductory and comparative selections from petroglyphs, proto-writing, scripts, syllabaries and alphabets.

Further:

— Ricard, Alain. “Africa and Writing” in F Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi (eds.) The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature (2004): 153-162.

On Writing/Literature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Orature
Primary Reading: Introductory and comparative selections from the praise poetry genre.

Further:

— Gunner, Liz. “Africa and Orality” in F Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi (eds.) The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature (2004): 1-18.

— Okpewho, Isidore The Epic in Africa: Toward a Poetics of the Oral Performance (1979).

— Ong, Walter. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (1982).

Early Writing | Africa

Carpentras Stele, Egypt
Primary Reading: Carpentras Stele, Egypt (?850 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Menes Tomb, Egypt
Primary Reading: Menes Tomb, Abydos, Egypt (3200-3000 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Nsibidi System, Nigeria
Primary Reading: Nsibidi Symbols, Nigeria (400-1400 AD).

Further:

— TBD.

Seth-Peribsen Tomb, Egypt
Primary Reading: Seth-Peribsen Tomb, Abydos, Egypt (2890-2686 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Rosetta Stone, Egypt
Primary Reading: Rosetta Stone, Memphis, Egypt (196 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Americas

Rongorongo Inscriptions, Easter Island, South America
Primary Reading: Rongorongo Inscriptions, Easter Island, Chile, South America (unknown).

Further:

— TBD.

Quipu, Andes, South America
Primary Reading: Quipu, Andes, South America (1100AD-1532AD and present-day).

Further:

— TBD.

Yugtun System, Alaska, North America
Primary Reading: Yugtun System, Alaska, North America (1900AD).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Asia

Ahiram Sarcophagus, Lebanon
Primary Reading: Sarcophagus of Ahiram, Byblos, Lebanon (850 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Ashoka Edicts, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan
Primary Reading: Edicts of Ashoka, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan (268-232 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Ashurbanipal Library, Iraq
Primary Reading: Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, Kouyunjik (ancient Nineveh, capital of Assyria), Iraq  (668–627 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Behistun Inscription, Iran
Primary Reading: Behistun Inscription, Mount Behistun, Iran (522-486 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Bogazköy Archive, Turkey
Primary Reading: Bogazköy Archive, (ancient Hattusas, capital of Hittite State), Turkey (522-486 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Canaanite and Aramaic Inscriptions, Wide Mediterranean Region
Primary Reading: Canaanite and Aramaic Inscriptions, Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Georgia, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Pakistan, Palestine, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey (1020-100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Jemdet Nasr Site, Iraq
Primary Reading: Jemdet Nasr Site, Tell al-Uhaymir, Iraq  (3100-2900 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Kish Tablet, Iraq
Primary Reading: Kish Tablet, Tell al-Uhaymir, Iraq  (3350-3200 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Kharosthi Inscriptions, Afghanistan, China, Pakistan
Primary Reading: Kharosthi Inscriptions, Afghanistan, China, Pakistan (600 BCE and 300-200 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Nabataean Inscriptions, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia
Primary Reading: Nabataean Inscriptions, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia (200-100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Susa Site, Iran, Iraq, Turkey
Primary Reading: Susa Site, Zagros Mountains, Iran, Iraq and Turkey (4200-1100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Tayma Stones, Sudia Arabia
Primary Reading: Tayma Stones, Sudia Arabia (500-400 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Xerxes I Inscription, Turkey
Primary Reading: Xerxes I Inscription, Van Fortress, Lake Van, Turkey  (486-465 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Yinxu Site, China
Primary Reading: Yinxu Site, Xiaotun Village, Anyang City, Henan Province, China  (1250-1046 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Australasia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Early Writing | Europe

Duenos Inscription, Italy
Primary Reading: Duenos Inscription, Quirinal Hill, Rome, Italy (600-400 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Etruscan Cockerel Vase, Italy
Primary Reading: Etruscan Cockerel Vase, Tuscany, Italy (650-600 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Marsiliana Tablet, Italy
Primary Reading: Marsiliana Tablet, Marsiliana, Tuscany, Italy (700 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Africa

Egyptians. Narratives and Poems of Middle Kingdom
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Narratives and Poems of Middle Kingdom (?-2100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Narratives and Poems of New Kingdom
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Narratives and Poems of New Kingdom (?-1550 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Narratives and Poems of Late Period
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Narratives and Poems of Late Period (?-350 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Asia

Chinese/Confucius. Classic of Poetry
Primary Reading: Chinese/Confucius. Classic of Poetry (1046-600 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Indo-Aryans. Ramayana
Primary Reading: Indo-Aryans. Ramayana (600 BCE-200s).

Further:

— TBD.

Mesopotamians/Sîn-lēqi-unninni. Epic of Gilgamesh
Primary Reading: Mesopotamians/Sîn-lēqi-unninni. Epic of Gilgamesh (2100-1200 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Australasia

Māori/Ngāti Rangiwewehi. The Sons of Heaven
Primary Reading: Māori/Ngāti Rangiwewehi. The Sons of Heaven (?-1849).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Europe

Greeks/Aesop. Fables
Primary Reading: Aesop. Fables (600s-500s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Greeks/Homer. The Iliad
Primary Reading: Homer. The Iliad (?-630 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Greeks/Homer. The Odyssey
Primary Reading: Homer. The Iliad (?-566 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

II — BCE till 600AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Asia

Kālidāsa. Pertaining to Mālavikā and Agnimitra, Pertaining to the Recognition of Śakuntalā and Ūrvaśī Won by Valour
Primary Reading: Kālidāsa. Pertaining to Mālavikā and Agnimitra, Pertaining to the Recognition of Śakuntalā and Ūrvaśī Won by Valour (300s).

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Europe

Aeschylus. The Oresteia
Primary Reading: Aeschylus. The Oresteia (458 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sophocles. The Theban Plays
Primary Reading: Euripides. The Bacchae (408-406 BCE) and The Medea (431 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sophocles. The Theban Plays
Primary Reading: Sophocles. The Theban Plays (441-405 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Africa

Banyanga. Mwindo Epic
Primary Reading: Banyanga/Shé-kárisi Rureke/Kahombo Mateene/Daniel Biebuyck. Mwindo Epic (?-1969).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Asia

Vishnu Sharma/Vasubhaga. Panchatantra
Primary Reading: Vishnu Sharma/Vasubhaga. Panchatantra (200 BCE-300).

Further:

— TBD.

Arabs/ al-Asmaʿi. Epic of ʿAntarah ibn Shaddad
Primary Reading: Arabs/ al-Asmaʿi. Epic of ʿAntarah ibn Shaddad (600s-700s).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Asia

Indo-Aryans/Vyasa. Mahabharata
Primary Reading: Indo-Aryans/Vyasa. Mahabharata (400 BCE-300s).

Further:

— TBD.

Arabs/Hammad al-Rawiya. al-Muʻallaqāt or The Suspended Odes
Primary Reading: Arabs/Hammad al-Rawiya. Muʻallaqāt or The Suspended Odes (500s-600s).

Further:

— TBD.

Arabs/Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī. al-Mufaddaliyyat or The Examination of al-Mufaḍḍal
Primary Reading: Arabs/Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī. Mufaddaliyyat or The Examination of al-Mufaḍḍal (500-650).

Further:

— TBD.

Qu Yuan. Chu Ci
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— Qu Yuan, Song Yu and Wang Yi. Chu Ci (200s BCE-100s).

Poetry | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Europe

Sappho. Ode to Aphrodite and Other Poems
Primary Reading: Sappho. Ode to Aphrodite and Other Poems (600s-500s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

III — 600AD-1599AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Africa

Ijaw. The Ozidi Saga
Primary Reading: Ijaw/Okabou Ojobolo/John Pepper Clark. The Ozidi Saga (?-1966).

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Africa

Mandingo. Epic of Sundiata
Primary Reading: Mandingo/Djeli Mamoudou Kouyaté/DT Niane. Epic of Sundiata (1200s-1960).

Further:

— TBD.

Songhay. Epic of Askia Mohammed I the Great
Primary Reading: Songhay/Nouhou Malio/Thomas Hale. Epic of Askia Mohammed I the Great (1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Asia

Arabs. One Thousand and One Nights
Primary Reading: Arabs. One Thousand and One Nights (?-1200s).

Further:

— TBD.

Luo Guanzhong. Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: Luo Guanzhong. Romance of the Three Kingdoms (1300s).

Further:

— TBD.

Shi Nai’an Water Margin
Primary Reading: Shi Nai’an Water Margin (1300s).

Further:

— TBD.

Shikibu, Murasaki. The Tale of Genji
Primary Reading: Shikibu, Murasaki. The Tale of Genji (1000-1012).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Europe

Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron
Primary Reading: Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron (1353).

Further:

— TBD.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales
Primary Reading: Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales (1400).

Further:

— TBD.

Rabelais, François. The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel
Primary Reading: Rabelais, François. The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532-1564).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Africa

Bards of Upper Egypt/Abdul Rahman al-Abnudi. Epic of Banu Hilal
Primary Reading: Bards of Upper Egypt/Abdul Rahman al-Abnudi. Epic of Banu Hilal (?-1100s).

Further:

— TBD.

Ibn al-Farid, Shaykh Umar. Poem of the Sufi Way
Primary Reading: Ibn al-Farid, Shaykh Umar. Poem of the Sufi Way (1200s).

Further:

— Ibn al-Farid, Shaykh Umar. The Wine Ode (1200s).

Poetry | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Asia

Arabs/Abu Zayd al-Qurashi. Jamharat Ashʻar al-Arab or The Gathering of the Arabs’ Verses
Primary Reading: Arabs/Abu Zayd al-Qurashi. al-Jamharat Ashʻar al-Arab or The Gathering of the Arabs’ Verses (700-900s).

Further:

— TBD.

Arabs/Al-Asmaʻi. al-Asmaʻiyyat
Primary Reading: Arabs/Al-Asmaʻi. al-Asmaʻiyyat (Pre-Islamic to Early Islamic Period).

Further:

— TBD.

Tulsidas. Ramcharitmanas
Primary Reading: Tulsidas. Ramcharitmanas (1570s).

Further:

— TBD.

Rūmī, Jalāl ad-Dīn Mohammad. The Masnavi or The Spiritual Couplets and The Divan-i Shams-i Tabrizi or The Works of Shams of Tabriz
Primary Reading: Rūmī, Jalāl ad-Dīn Mohammad. The Masnavi or The Spiritual Couplets (1258-1273) and The Divan-i Shams-i Tabrizi or The Works of Shams of Tabriz (1247-1258).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Europe

Alighieri, Dante. The Divine Comedy
Primary Reading: Alighieri, Dante. The Divine Comedy (1320).

Further:

— TBD.

Camões, Luís de. Os Lusíadas
Primary Reading: Camões, Luís de. Os Lusíadas (1572).

Further:

— TBD.

South Slavic Bards. The Epic Cycles
Primary Reading: South Slavic Bards. The Building of Skadar (1300s-1815) and Songs of Heroes and of the Frontier Warriors (1300s-1937).

Further:

— TBD.

IV — 1600AD-1699AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Europe

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Hamlet and The Tempest
Primary Reading: Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1595-1596), The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1599-1601) and The Tempest (1610-1611).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Asia

Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng. The Plum in the Golden Vase
Primary Reading: Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng. The Plum in the Golden Vase (1610).

Further:

— TBD.

Ihara Saikaku. Life of an Amorous Man, Life of an Amorous Woman and The Great Mirror of Male Love
Primary Reading: Ihara Saikaku. Life of an Amorous Man (1682), Life of an Amorous Woman (1686) and The Great Mirror of Male Love: The Custom of Boy Love in Our Land (1687).

Further:

— TBD.

Wu Cheng’en. Journey to the West
Primary Reading: Wu Cheng’en. Journey to the West (1592).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Europe

Behn, Aphra. Oroonoko; or The Royal Slave
Primary Reading: Behn, Aphra. Oroonoko; or The Royal Slave (1688).

Further:

— TBD.

Cervantes, Miguel de. Don Quixote
Primary Reading: Cervantes, Miguel de. The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (1605/1615).

Further:

— TBD.

Bunyan, John. The Pilgrim’s Progress
Primary Reading: Bunyan, John. The Pilgrim’s Progress from This World, to That Which Is to Come (1678).

Further:

— TBD.

Cervantes, Miguel de. Don Quixote
Primary Reading: Cervantes, Miguel de. The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (1605/1615).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Europe

Shakespeare, William. Shake-speare’s Sonnets
Primary Reading: Shakespeare, William. Shake-speare’s Sonnets (1609).

Further:

— TBD.

V — 1700AD-1799AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Asia

Chikamatsu Monzaemon. The Courier for Hell, The Battles of Coxinga and The Love Suicides at Amijima
Primary Reading: Chikamatsu Monzaemon. The Courier for Hell (1711), The Battles of Coxinga (1715) and The Love Suicides at Amijima (1721).

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Asia

Cao Xue-qin. Dream of the Red Chamber
Primary Reading: Cao Xue-qin. Dream of the Red Chamber (1791).

Further:

— TBD.

Hiraga Gennai. Nenashigusa or Rootless Grass
Primary Reading: Hiraga Gennai. Nenashigusa or Rootless Grass (1763).

Further:

— TBD.

Pu Song-ling. Strange Tales of Liao Zhai
Primary Reading: Pu Song-ling. Strange Tales of Liao Zhai or Liao-zhai’s Record of Won­ders (1679-1766).

Further:

— TBD.

Santō Kyōden. The Unseamly Silverpiped Swingers, The Courtesan’s Silken Sieve and The Straw Sandal Or The Scroll of the Hundred Crabs
Primary Reading: Santō Kyōden. The Unseamly Silverpiped Swingers (1788), The Courtesan’s Silken Sieve (1791) and The Straw Sandal Or The Scroll of the Hundred Crabs (1806).

Further:

— TBD.

Ueda Akinari. Tales of Moonlight and Rain and The Tales of Spring Rain
Primary Reading: Ueda Akinari. Tales of Moonlight and Rain (1776) and The Tales of Spring Rain (1907).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Europe

Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe
Primary Reading: Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe (1719).

Further:

— TBD.

Spoiler title
Primary Reading: Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (1795-1796).

Further:

— TBD.

Spoiler title
Primary Reading: Swift, Jonathan. Gullivers Travels (1726).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Africa

Mwengo. Utend̠i wa Tambuka or The Book of the Battle of Tambuka
Primary Reading: Mwengo. Utend̠i wa Tambuka or The Book of the Battle of Tambuka (1400s-1728).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Americas

Wheatley, Phillis. Poems on Various Subjects
Primary Reading: Wheatley, Phillis. Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral by Phillis Wheatley, Negro Servant to Mr John Wheatley, of Boston, in New England (1773)

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VI — 1800AD-1899AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Americas

Dupré, Antoine. La Mort du Général Lamarre and La Jeune Fille
Primary Reading: Dupré, Antoine. La Mort du Général Lamarre and La Jeune Fille (1816).

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Europe

Chekhov, Anton. The Seagull, Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard
Primary Reading: Chekhov, Anton. The Seagull (1896), Uncle Vanya (1898), Three Sisters (1901) and The Cherry Orchard (1904).

Further:

— TBD.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Faust
Primary Reading: Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Faust, Part One and Part Two (1806 and 1808).

Further:

— TBD.

Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House, The Wild Duck and The Master Builder
Primary Reading: Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House (1879), The Wild Duck (1884) and The Master Builder (1892).

Further:

— TBD.

Strindberg, August. Miss Julie
Primary Reading: Strindberg, August. Miss Julie (1889).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Africa

Schreiner, Olive. The Story of an African Farm
Primary Reading: Schreiner, Olive. The Story of an African Farm (1883).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Americas

Delany, Martin. Blake
Primary Reading: Delany, Martin. Blake, or the Huts of America (1859-1862).

Further:

— TBD.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Yellow Wallpaper
Primary Reading: Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Yellow Wallpaper (1892).

Further:

— TBD.

James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw
Primary Reading: James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw (1898).

Further:

— TBD.

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick
Primary Reading: Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (1851).

Further:

— Melville, Herman. Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street (1853).

Poe, Edgar Allan. The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym and The Tell-Tale Heart
Primary Reading: Poe, Edgar Allan. The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1838) and The Tell-Tale Heart (1843).

Further:

— TBD.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Toms Cabin
Primary Reading: Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Toms Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly (1852).

Further:

— TBD.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Primary Reading: Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884-1885).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Asia

Chattopadhyay, Bankim Chandra. Daughter of the Feudal Lord
Primary Reading: Chattopadhyay, Bankim Chandra. Daughter of the Feudal Lord (1865).

Further:

— TBD.

Kyokutei Bakin. The Eight Dog Chronicles
Primary Reading: Kyokutei Bakin. The Eight Dog Chronicles (1814-1842).

Further:

— TBD.

Jippensha Ikku. Shank’s Mare
Primary Reading: Jippensha Ikku. Shank’s Mare (1802-1822).

Further:

— TBD.

Wu Jing-zi. The Scholars
Primary Reading: Wu Jing-zi. The Scholars (1803).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Europe

Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park
Primary Reading: Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park (1814).

Further:

— TBD.

Balzac, Honoré de. Père Goriot
Primary Reading: Balzac, Honoré de. Père Goriot (1835).

Further:

— TBD.

Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre
Primary Reading: Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre (1847).

Further:

— TBD.

Chekhov, Anton. The Lady with the Dog
Primary Reading: Chekhov, Anton. The Lady with the Dog (1899).

Further:

— TBD.

Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations
Primary Reading: Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations (1860-1861).

Further:

— TBD.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov
Primary Reading: Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov (1879-1880).

Further:

— TBD.

Duras, Claire de. Ourika
Primary Reading: Duras, Claire de. Ourika (1823).

Further:

— TBD.

Eliot, George. Middlemarch
Primary Reading: Eliot, George. Middlemarch, A Study of Provincial Life (1871-1872).

Further:

— TBD.

Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary
Primary Reading: Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary: Provincial Manners (1856).

Further:

— TBD.

Gogol, Nikolai. The Overcoat
Primary Reading: Gogol, Nikolai. The Overcoat (1842).

Further:

— TBD.

Haggard, H Rider. King Solomon’s Mines
Primary Reading: Haggard, H Rider. King Solomon’s Mines (1885).

Further:

— TBD.

Hugo, Victor. The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
Primary Reading: Hugo, Victor. The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831).

Further:

— TBD.

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein
Primary Reading: Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818).

Further:

— TBD.

Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace
Primary Reading: Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace (1869).

Further:

— TBD.

Zola, Émile. Germinal
Primary Reading: Zola, Émile. Germinal (1885).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Africa

Mwana Kupona. Utendi wa Mwana Kupona or The Book of Mwana Kupona
Primary Reading: Mwana Kupona. Utendi wa Mwana Kupona or The Book of Mwana Kupona (1858).

Further:

— TBD.

Ntsikana. Ulo Thixomkulu/Thou Great God and Other Hymns
Primary Reading: Ntsikana. Ulo Thixomkulu/Thou Great God and Other Hymns (1828).

Further:

— TBD.

Sayyid Abdullah Ali Nasir. Al-Inkishafi or The Soul’s Awakening
Primary Reading: Sayyid Abdullah Ali Nasir. Al-Inkishafi or The Soul’s Awakening (1810s).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Americas

Darío, Rubén. Blue and Songs of Life and Hope
Primary Reading: Darío, Rubén. Blue...(1888) and Songs of Life and Hope (1905).

Further:

— TBD.

Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Oak and Ivy and Lyrics of Lowly Life
Primary Reading: Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Oak and Ivy (1893) and Lyrics of Lowly Life (1896).

Further:

— TBD.

Dupré, Antoine. Hymne à la Liberté and Le Rêve d'un Haïtien
Primary Reading: Dupré, Antoine. 1812: Hymne à la Liberté and La Rêve d’un Haïtien (1816).

Further:

— TBD.

Martí, José. Simple Verses and Nuestra América
Primary Reading: Martí, José. Simple Verses and Nuestra América (1891).

Further:

— TBD.

Poe, Edgar Allan. The Raven and Other Poems
Primary Reading: Poe, Edgar Allan. The Raven and Other Poems (1845).

Further:

— TBD.

Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass
Primary Reading: Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass (1855).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Europe

Baudelaire, Charles. The Flowers of Evil
Primary Reading: Baudelaire, Charles. The Flowers of Evil (1840-1867).

Further:

— TBD.

VII — 1900AD-1945AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Africa

Shawqi, Ahmed. The Death of Cleopatra and ‘Antar
Primary Reading: Shawqi, Ahmed. The Death of Cleopatra (1929) and ‘Antar (1931).

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Europe

Brecht, Bertolt. The Threepenny Opera, Rise and Fall of the City of Mahogany and Fear and Misery of the Third Reich
Primary Reading: Brecht, Bertolt. The Threepenny Opera (1928), Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (1930) and Fear and Misery of the Third Reich (1938).

Further:

— TBD.

García Lorca, Federico. Blood Wedding, Yerma and The House of Bernarda Alba
Primary Reading: García Lorca, Federico. Blood Wedding (1933), Yerma (1934) and The House of Bernarda Alba (1936).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Africa

Fagunwa, Daniel O. Forest of a Thousand Daemons
Primary Reading: Fagunwa, Daniel O. Forest of a Thousand Daemons (1938).

Further:

— TBD.

Maran, René. Batouala
Primary Reading: Maran, René. Batouala: A True Black Novel (1921).

Further:

— TBD.

Mofolo, Thomas. Chaka
Primary Reading: Mofolo, Thomas. Chaka (1939).

Further:

— TBD.

Plaatje, Sol. Mhudi
Primary Reading: Plaatje, Sol. Mhudi (1930).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Americas

Borges, Jorge Luis. Collected Fictions
Primary Reading: Borges, Jorge Luis. Collected Fictions (1935-1975).

Further:

— TBD.

Faulkner, William. The Sound and the Fury and Absalom, Absalom!
Primary Reading: Faulkner, William. The Sound and the Fury (1929) and Absalom, Absalom! (1936).

Further:

— TBD.

Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises
Primary Reading: Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises (1926).

Further:

— TBD.

Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath
Primary Reading: Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath (1939).

Further:

— TBD.

Toomer, Jean. Cane
Primary Reading: Toomer, Jean. Cane (1923).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Europe

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim and Nostromo
Primary Reading: Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness (1899), Lord Jim (1900) and Nostromo (1904).

Further:

— TBD.

Forster, EM. A Passage to India
Primary Reading: Forster, EM. A Passage to India (1924).

Further:

— TBD.

Gide, André. The Immoralist
Primary Reading: Gide, André. The Immoralist (1902).

Further:

— TBD.

Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses
Primary Reading: Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Ulysses (1922).

Further:

— TBD.

Kipling, Rudyard. Kim
Primary Reading: Kipling, Rudyard. Kim (1901).

Further:

— TBD.

Proust, Marcel. In Search of Lost Time
Primary Reading: Proust, Marcel. In Search of Lost Time (1913-1927).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Africa

Shawqi, Ahmed. Diwan of Ahmed Shawqi
Primary Reading: Shawqi, Ahmed. Diwan of Ahmed Shawqi: Selected Poems (-1932).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Americas

Césaire, Aimé. Notebook of a Return to My Native Land
Primary Reading: Césaire, Aimé. Notebook of a Return to My Native Land (1939).

Further:

— TBD.

García Lorca, Federico. Gypsy Ballads
Primary Reading: García Lorca, Federico. Gypsy Ballads (1928).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Europe

Breton, André. Les Champs magnétiques and Nadja
Primary Reading: Breton, André. Les Champs magnétiques and Nadja (1928).

Further:

— Breton, André. Manifeste du surréalisme (1924).

Eliot, TS. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock and The Waste Land
Primary Reading: Eliot, TS. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1915) and The Waste Land (1922).

Further:

— Breton, André. Manifeste du surréalisme (1924).

VIII — 1945AD-present

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Africa

Fugard, Athol. Sizwe Banzi Is Dead and The Island
Primary Reading: Fugard, Athol. Sizwe Banzi Is Dead (1972) and The Island (1973).

Further:

— TBD.

NDiaye, Marie. Papa doit manger or Papa Has to Eat
Primary Reading: NDiaye, Marie. Papa doit manger or Papa Has to Eat (2003).

Further:

— TBD.

Soyinka, Wole. A Dance of the Forests, The Road and Death and the King’s Horseman
Primary Reading: Soyinka, Wole. A Dance of the Forests (1963), The Road (1965) and Death and the King’s Horseman (1975).

Further:

— Soyinka, Wole. Idanre and Other Poems (1967).

— Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World (1976).

Drama | Americas

Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun
Primary Reading: Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun (1959).

Further:

— TBD.

Kennedy, Adrienne. Funnyhouse of a Negro
Primary Reading: Kennedy, Adrienne. Funnyhouse of a Negro (1964).

Further:

— TBD.

Miller, Arthur. All My Sons, Death of a Salesman and The Crucible
Primary Reading: Miller, Arthur. All My Sons (1947), Death of a Salesman (1949) and The Crucible (1953).

Further:

— TBD.

O’Neill, Eugene. The Iceman Cometh and Long Day’s Journey into Night
Primary Reading: O’Neill, Eugene. The Iceman Cometh (1946) and Long Day’s Journey into Night (1956).

Further:

— TBD.

Shange, Ntozake. Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow Is Enuf
Primary Reading: Shange, Ntozake. Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow Is Enuf (1976).

Further:

— TBD.

Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
Primary Reading: Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955).

Further:

— TBD.

Wilson, August. The Pittsburgh Cycle
Primary Reading: Wilson, August. The Pittsburgh Cycle (1982-2005).

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Drama | Europe

Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot and Endgame
Primary Reading: Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot (1953) and Endgame (1957).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Africa

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart, A Man of the People and Anthills of the Savannah
Primary Reading: Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart (1958), A Man of the People (1966) and Anthills of the Savannah (1987).

Further:

— TBD.

Aidoo, Ama Ata. Our Sister Killjoy
Primary Reading: Aidoo, Ama Ata. Our Sister Killjoy (1977).

Further:

— TBD.

Bâ, Mariama. So Long a Letter
Primary Reading: Bâ, Mariama. So Long a Letter (1980).

Further:

— TBD.

Armah, Ayi Kwei. The Beautiful Ones Are Not Yet Born
Primary Reading: Armah, Ayi Kwei. The Beautiful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968).

Further:

— TBD.

Ben Jelloun, Tahar. The Sand Child and The Sacred Night
Primary Reading: Ben Jelloun, Tahar. The Sand Child (1985) and The Sacred Night (1987).

Further:

— TBD.

Chedid, Andrée. The Sixth Day
Primary Reading: Chedid, Andrée. The Sixth Day (1960).

Further:

— TBD.

Coetzee, JM. Disgrace
Primary Reading: Coetzee, JM. Disgrace (1999).

Further:

— TBD.

Dangaremgba, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions
Primary Reading: Dangaremgba, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions (1988).

Further:

— TBD.

Djebar, Assia. Lamour, la fantasia
Primary Reading: Djebar, Assia. Lamour, la fantasia (1985).

Further:

— TBD.

Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood
Primary Reading: Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood (1979).

Further:

— TBD.

Farah, Nuruddin. Blood in the Sun Trilogy
Primary Reading: Farah, Nuruddin. Blood in the Sun Trilogy (1986-1998).

Further:

— TBD.

Gordimer, Nadine. Burgers Daughter
Primary Reading: Gordimer, Nadine. Burgers Daughter (1979).

Further:

— TBD.

Head, Bessie. A Question of Power
Primary Reading: Head, Bessie. A Question of Power (1974).

Further:

— TBD.

Kane, Cheikh Hamidou. Ambiguous Adventure
Primary Reading: Kane, Cheikh Hamidou. Ambiguous Adventure (1962).

Further:

— TBD.

Laye, Camara. The Radiance of the King
Primary Reading: Laye, Camara. The Radiance of the King (1971).

Further:

— TBD.

Lessing, Doris. The Golden Notebook
Primary Reading: Lessing, Doris. The Golden Notebook (1962).

Further:

— TBD.

Mahfouz, Naguib. The Cairo Trilogy
Primary Reading: Mahfouz, Naguib. The Cairo Trilogy (1954-1957).

Further:

— TBD.

Memmi, Albert. The Pillar of Salt
Primary Reading: Memmi, Albert. The Pillar of Salt (1953).

Further:

— TBD.

Okri, Ben. The Famished Road
Primary Reading: Okri, Ben. The Famished Road (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Ouologuem, Yambo. The Duty of Violence
Primary Reading: Ouologuem, Yambo. The Duty of Violence (1968).

Further:

— TBD.

Pepetela. Return of the Water Spirit
Primary Reading: Pepetela. Return of the Water Spirit (1995).

Further:

— TBD.

Salih, Tayeb. Season of Migration to the North
Primary Reading: Salih, Tayeb. Season of Migration to the North (1969).

Further:

— TBD.

Saro-Wiwa, Ken. Sozaboy
Primary Reading: Saro-Wiwa, Ken. Sozaboy (1980).

Further:

— TBD.

Sembene, Ousmane. God’s Bits of Wood
Primary Reading: Sembene, Ousmane. God’s Bits of Wood (1960).

Further:

— TBD.

wa Thiong’o, Ngugi. Weep Not, Child and Matigari
Primary Reading: wa Thiong’o, Ngugi. Weep Not, Child (1964) and Matigari (1987).

Further:

— TBD.

Tutuola, Amos. The Palmwine Drinkard
Primary Reading: Tutuola, Amos. The Palmwine Drinkard (1952).

Further:

— TBD.

Vera, Yvonne. Without a Name
Primary Reading: Vera, Yvonne. Without a Name (1994).

Further:

— TBD.

Yacine, Kateb. Nedjma
Primary Reading: Yacine, Kateb. Nedjma (1956).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Americas

Alexis, Jacques Stephen. General Sun, My Brother
Primary Reading: Alexis, Jacques Stephen. General Sun, My Brother (1955).

Further:

— TBD.

Allende, Isabel. The House of Spirits
Primary Reading: Allende, Isabel. The House of Spirits (1982).

Further:

— TBD.

Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid’s Tale
Primary Reading: Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid’s Tale (1985).

Further:

— TBD.

Baldwin, James. Go Tell It On the Mountain and Giovannis Room
Primary Reading: Baldwin, James. Go Tell It On the Mountain (1953) and Giovannis Room (1956).

Further:

— Baldwin, James. “Everybody’s Protest Novel” (1955) and The Fire Next Time (1963).

Bolaño, Roberto. 2666
Primary Reading: Bolaño, Roberto. 2666 (2004).

Further:

— TBD.

Butler, Octavia. The Parable Series
Primary Reading: Butler, Octavia. The Parable Series (1993-1998).

Further:

— TBD.

Carpentier, Alejo. The Kingdom of this World
Primary Reading: Carpentier, Alejo. The Kingdom of this World (1949).

Further:

— TBD.

Carver, Raymond. Where Im Calling From
Primary Reading: Carver, Raymond. Where Im Calling From (1963-1986).

Further:

— TBD.

Chamoiseau, Patrick. Texaco
Primary Reading: Chamoiseau, Patrick. Texaco (1997).

Further:

— TBD.

Condé, Maryse. Heremakhonon
Primary Reading: Condé, Maryse. Heremakhonon (1988).

Further:

— TBD.

Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch
Primary Reading: Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch (1963).

Further:

— TBD.

Delaney, Samuel R. Dhalgren
Primary Reading: Delaney, Samuel R. Dhalgren (1974).

Further:

— TBD.

DeLillo, Don. Underworld
Primary Reading: DeLillo, Don. Underworld (1997).

Further:

— TBD.

Diaz, Junot. The Brief and Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
Primary Reading: Diaz, Junot. The Brief and Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao (2007).

Further:

— TBD.

Didion, Joan. Slouching Towards Bethlehem
Primary Reading: Didion, Joan. Slouching Towards Bethlehem (1968).

Further:

— TBD.

Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Primary Reading: Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man (1952).

Further:

— TBD.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine
Primary Reading: Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine (1984).

Further:

— TBD.

Fuentes, Carlos. The Death of Artemio Cruz
Primary Reading: Fuentes, Carlos. The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962).

Further:

— TBD.

Gaddis, William. The Recognitions
Primary Reading: Gaddis, William. The Recognitions (1955).

Further:

— TBD.

García Márquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude
Primary Reading: García Márquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967).

Further:

— TBD.

Gibson, William. Neuromancer
Primary Reading: Gibson, William. Neuromancer (1984).

Further:

— TBD.

Harris, Wilson. The Guyana Quartet
Primary Reading: Harris, Wilson. The Guyana Quartet (1960-1963).

Further:

— TBD.

Heller, Joseph. Catch-22
Primary Reading: Heller, Joseph. Catch-22 (1961).

Further:

— TBD.

Kerouac, Jack. On the Road
Primary Reading: Kerouac, Jack. On the Road (1957).

Further:

— TBD.

Kincaid, Jamaica. Lucy
Primary Reading: Kincaid, Jamaica. Lucy (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior
Primary Reading: Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior (1975).

Further:

— TBD.

Lamming, George. In the Castle of My Skin
Primary Reading: Lamming, George. In the Castle of My Skin (1953).

Further:

— TBD.

Lispector, Clarice. The Hour of the Star
Primary Reading: Lispector, Clarice. The Hour of the Star (1977).

Further:

— TBD.

Marshall, Paule. Brown Girl, Brownstones
Primary Reading: Marshall, Paule. Brown Girl, Brownstones (1959).

Further:

— TBD.

McCarthy, Cormac. The Road
Primary Reading: McCarthy, Cormac. The Road (2006).

Further:

— TBD.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved/Love Trilogy
Primary Reading: Morrison, Toni. Beloved/Love Trilogy (1987-1997).

Further:

— TBD.

Munro, Alice. Carried Away
Primary Reading: Munro, Alice. Carried Away (1977-2004).

Further:

— TBD.

Naipaul, VS. A House for Mr Biswas
Primary Reading: Naipaul, VS. A House for Mr Biswas (1961).

Further:

— TBD.

O’Connor, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find
Primary Reading: O’Connor, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find (1955).

Further:

— TBD.

Olinto, Antonio. The Water House
Primary Reading: Olinto, Antonio. The Water House (1969).

Further:

— TBD.

Ondaatje, Michael. The English Patient
Primary Reading: Ondaatje, Michael. The English Patient (1992).

Further:

— TBD.

Phillips, Caryl. Crossing the River
Primary Reading: Phillips, Caryl. Crossing the River (1993).

Further:

— TBD.

Puig, Manuel. Kiss of the Spiderwoman
Primary Reading: Puig, Manuel. Kiss of the Spiderwoman (1976).

Further:

— TBD.

Pynchon, Thomas. Gravitys Rainbow
Primary Reading: Pynchon, Thomas. Gravitys Rainbow (1973).

Further:

— TBD.

Rhys, Jean. Wide Sargasso Sea
Primary Reading: Rhys, Jean. Wide Sargasso Sea (1966).

Further:

— TBD.

Roth, Phillip. Americal Pastoral
Primary Reading: Roth, Phillip. Americal Pastoral (1998).

Further:

— TBD.

Rulfo, Juan. Pedro Páramo
Primary Reading: Rulfo, Juan. Pedro Páramo (1955).

Further:

— TBD.

Salinger, JD. The Catcher in the Rye
Primary Reading: Salinger, JD. The Catcher in the Rye (1945-1946/1951).

Further:

— TBD.

Schwarz-Bart, Simone. Rain and Wind at Telumée Miracle
Primary Reading: Schwarz-Bart, Simone. Rain and Wind at Telumée Miracle (1972).

Further:

— TBD.

Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony
Primary Reading: Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony (1977).

Further:

— TBD.

Styron, William. Sophies Choice
Primary Reading: Styron, William. Sophies Choice (1979).

Further:

— TBD.

Vargas Llosa, Mario. The War at the End of the World
Primary Reading: Vargas Llosa, Mario. The War at the End of the World (1981).

Further:

— TBD.

Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughterhouse-Five
Primary Reading: Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughterhouse-Five (1969).

Further:

— TBD.

Walker, Alice. The Color Purple
Primary Reading: Walker, Alice. The Color Purple (1982).

Further:

— TBD.

Wallace, David Foster. Infinite Jest
Primary Reading: Wallace, David Foster. Infinite Jest (1996).

Further:

— TBD.

Warren, Robert Penn. All the Kings Men
Primary Reading: Warren, Robert Penn. All the Kings Men (1946).

Further:

— TBD.

Wright, Richard. Native Son
Primary Reading: Wright, Richard. Native Son (1940).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Asia

Desai, Anita. Clear Light of Day
Primary Reading: Desai, Anita. Clear Light of Day (1980).

Further:

— TBD.

Ghosh, Amitav. The Shadow Lines
Primary Reading: Ghosh, Amitav. The Shadow Lines (1988).

Further:

— TBD.

Mishima, Yukio. Confessions of a Mask
Primary Reading: Mishima, Yukio. Confessions of a Mask (1949).

Further:

— TBD.

Mistry, Rohan. A Fine Balance
Primary Reading: Mistry, Rohan. A Fine Balance (1995).

Further:

— TBD.

Ōe, Kenzaburō. Football in the First Year of Man’en
Primary Reading: Ōe, Kenzaburō. Football in the First Year of Man’en (1967).

Further:

— TBD.

Roy, Arundhati. The God of Small Things
Primary Reading: Roy, Arundhati. The God of Small Things (1997).

Further:

— TBD.

Rushdie, Salman. Midnights Children
Primary Reading: Rushdie, Salman. Midnights Children (1981).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Australasia/Oceania

Duff, Alan. Once Were Warriors
Primary Reading: Duff, Alan. Once Were Warriors (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Frame, Janet. The Carpathians
Primary Reading: Frame, Janet. The Carpathians (1988).

Further:

— TBD.

Gee, Maurice. The Plumb Trilogy
Primary Reading: Gee, Maurice. The Plumb Trilogy (1978-1983).

Further:

— TBD.

Hulme, Keri. The Bone People
Primary Reading: Hulme, Keri. The Bone People (1984).

Further:

— TBD.

Narrative | Europe

Amis, Martin. London Fields
Primary Reading: Amis, Martin. London Fields (1989).

Further:

— TBD.

Beckett, Samuel. The Un-Trilogy
Primary Reading: Beckett, Samuel. The Un-Trilogy (1951-1953).

Further:

— TBD.

Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and Margarita
Primary Reading: Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and Margarita (1966-1967).

Further:

— TBD.

Burgess, Anthony. A Clockwork Orange
Primary Reading: Burgess, Anthony. A Clockwork Orange (1962).

Further:

— TBD.

Byatt, AS. Possession
Primary Reading: Byatt, AS. Possession (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Calvino, Italo. If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler
Primary Reading: Calvino, Italo. If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler (1979).

Further:

— TBD.

Camus, Albert. The Outsider
Primary Reading: Camus, Albert. The Outsider (1942).

Further:

— TBD.

Duras, Marguerite. The Lover
Primary Reading: Duras, Marguerite. The Lover (1984).

Further:

— TBD.

Eco, Umberto. The Name of the Rose
Primary Reading: Eco, Umberto. The Name of the Rose (1980).

Further:

— TBD.

Fowles, John. The Magus
Primary Reading: Fowles, John. The Magus (1965).

Further:

— TBD.

Grass, Günter. The Tin Drum
Primary Reading: Grass, Günter. The Tin Drum (1959).

Further:

— TBD.

Ishiguro, Kazuo. The Remains of the Day
Primary Reading: Ishiguro, Kazuo. The Remains of the Day (1989).

Further:

— TBD.

Kelman, James. How Late It Was, How Late
Primary Reading: Kelman, James. How Late It Was, How Late (1994).

Further:

— TBD.

Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being
Primary Reading: Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1984).

Further:

— TBD.

Levi, Primo. The Periodic Table
Primary Reading: Levi, Primo. The Periodic Table (1975).

Further:

— TBD.

Murdoch, Iris. Under the Net
Primary Reading: Murdoch, Iris. Under the Net (1954).

Further:

— TBD.

Nabokov, Vladimir. Pale Fire
Primary Reading: Nabokov, Vladimir. Pale Fire (1962).

Further:

— TBD.

Orwell, George. 1984
Primary Reading: Orwell, George. 1984 (1949).

Further:

— TBD.

Pamuk, Orhan. My Name is Red
Primary Reading: Pamuk, Orhan. My Name is Red (1998).

Further:

— TBD.

Saramago, José. Blindness
Primary Reading: Saramago, José. Blindness (1995).

Further:

— TBD.

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
Primary Reading: Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962).

Further:

— TBD.

Tolkien, JRR. The Lord of the Rings Trilogy
Primary Reading: Tolkien, JRR. The Lord of the Rings Trilogy (1954-1955).

Further:

— TBD.

Yourcenar, Marguerite. The Abyss
Primary Reading: Yourcenar, Marguerite. The Abyss (1968).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Africa

Okigbo, Christopher. Path of Thunder and Labyrinths
Primary Reading: Okigbo, Christopher. Path of Thunder (1965–67) and Labyrinths (1971).

Further:

— TBD.

Okot p’Bitek. Song of Lawino
Primary Reading: Okot p’Bitek. Song of Lawino (1966).

Further:

— TBD.

Zakaria, Moufdi. From Our Mountains, Kassaman and Other Poems
Primary Reading: Zakaria, Moufdi. From Our Mountains, Kassaman and Other Poems (1932-1955).

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Americas

Brathwaite, Kamau. The Arrivants
Primary Reading: Brathwaite, Kamau. The Arrivants (1967-1969).

Further:

— TBD.

Rankine, Claudia. Citizen
Primary Reading: Rankine, Claudia. Citizen (2014).

Further:

— TBD.

Walcott, Derek. Omeros
Primary Reading: Walcott, Derek. Omeros (1990).

Further:

— Walcott, Derek. A Far Cry From Africa (1962), Names (1976) and The Schooner Flight (1979).

Poetry | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Poetry | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Seminar — Contemporary Fiction

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Fiction | Africa

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. Half of a Yellow Sun
Primary Reading: Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. Half of a Yellow Sun (2006).

Further:

— TBD.

Cole, Teju. Open City
Primary Reading: Cole, Teju. Open City (2011).

Further:

— TBD.

Daoud, Kamel. The Meursault Investigation
Primary Reading: Daoud, Kamel. The Meursault Investigation (2015).

Further:

— TBD.

Mda, Zakes. The Heart of Redness
Primary Reading: Mda, Zakes. The Heart of Redness (2000).

Further:

— TBD.

Mpe, Phaswane. Welcome to our Hillbrow
Primary Reading: Mpe, Phaswane. Welcome to our Hillbrow (2000).

Further:

— TBD.

Moele, Kgebetli. The Book of the Dead
Primary Reading: Moele, Kgebetli. The Book of the Dead (2009).

Further:

— TBD.

Fiction | Americas

Alexie, Sherman. Reservation Blues
Primary Reading: Alexie, Sherman. Reservation Blues (1995).

Further:

— TBD.

Arenas, Reinaldo. Pentagonia
Primary Reading: Arenas, Reinaldo. Pentagonia (1982-1992).

Further:

— TBD.

Auster, Paul. The New York Trilogy
Primary Reading: Auster, Paul. The New York Trilogy (1985-1986).

Further:

— TBD.

Bambara, Toni Cade. Gorilla, My Love
Primary Reading: Bambara, Toni Cade. Gorilla, My Love (1972).

Further:

— TBD.

Barthelme, Donald. Sixty Stories
Primary Reading: Barthelme, Donald. Sixty Stories (1964-1981).

Further:

— TBD.

Beatty, Paul. The Sellout
Primary Reading: Beatty, Paul. The Sellout (2015).

Further:

— TBD.

Bowles, Paul. The Sheltering Sky
Primary Reading: Bowles, Paul. The Sheltering Sky (1949).

Further:

— TBD.

Chabon, Michael. The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay
Primary Reading: Chabon, Michael. The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay (2000).

Further:

— TBD.

Cheever, John. The Stories of John Cheever
Primary Reading: Cheever, John. The Stories of John Cheever (1947-1978).

Further:

— TBD.

Choi, Susan. American Woman
Primary Reading: Choi, Susan. American Woman (2003).

Further:

— TBD.

Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street
Primary Reading: Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street (1984).

Further:

— TBD.

Cliff, Michelle. No Telephone to Heaven
Primary Reading: Cliff, Michelle. No Telephone to Heaven (1987).

Further:

— TBD.

Danticat, Edwidge. Breath, Eyes, Memory
Primary Reading: Danticat, Edwidge. Breath, Eyes, Memory (1994).

Further:

— TBD.

Eugenides, Jeffery. Middlesex
Primary Reading: Eugenides, Jeffery. Middlesex (2002).

Further:

— TBD.

Franzen, Jonathan. The Corrections
Primary Reading: Franzen, Jonathan. The Corrections (2001).

Further:

— TBD.

Gaines, Ernest J. A Lesson Before Dying
Primary Reading: Gaines, Ernest J. A Lesson Before Dying (1993).

Further:

— TBD.

Herron, Carolivia. Thereafter Johnnie
Primary Reading: Herron, Carolivia. Thereafter Johnnie (1991).

Further:

— TBD.

Hijuelos, Oscar. The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
Primary Reading: Hijuelos, Oscar. The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love (1989).

Further:

— TBD.

James, Marlon. A Brief History of Seven Killings
Primary Reading: James, Marlon. A Brief History of Seven Killings (2014).

Further:

— TBD.

Jin, Ha. Waiting
Primary Reading: Jin, Ha. Waiting (1999).

Further:

— TBD.

Johnson, Adam. The Orphan Masters Son
Primary Reading: Johnson, Adam. The Orphan Masters Son (2012).

Further:

— TBD.

Johnson, Charles. Middle Passage
Primary Reading: Johnson, Charles. Middle Passage (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Jones, Edward P. The Known World
Primary Reading: Jones, Edward P. The Known World (2003).

Further:

— TBD.

Jones, Gayl. Corregidora
Primary Reading: Jones, Gayl. Corregidora (1975).

Further:

— TBD.

Keller, Nora Okja. Comfort Woman
Primary Reading: Keller, Nora Okja. Comfort Woman (1997).

Further:

— TBD.

Lahiri, Jumpha. Interpreter of Maladies
Primary Reading: Lahiri, Jumpha. Interpreter of Maladies (2000).

Further:

— TBD.

Lovelace, Earl. Salt
Primary Reading: Lovelace, Earl. Salt (1996).

Further:

— TBD.

Moore, Lorrie. Birds of America
Primary Reading: Moore, Lorrie. Birds of America (1998).

Further:

— TBD.

Naylor, Gloria. The Women of Brewster Place
Primary Reading: Naylor, Gloria. The Women of Brewster Place (1983).

Further:

— TBD.

Nguyen, Viet Thanh. The Sympathizer
Primary Reading: Nguyen, Viet Thanh. The Sympathizer (2015).

Further:

— TBD.

O’Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried
Primary Reading: O’Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Proulx, E Annie. The Shipping News
Primary Reading: Proulx, E Annie. The Shipping News (1993).

Further:

ibid. “Brokeback Mountain” (1997).

Robinson, Marilynne. Gilead
Primary Reading: Robinson, Marilynne. Gilead (2004).

Further:

— TBD.

Sontag, Susan. The Way We Live Now
Primary Reading: Sontag, Susan. The Way We Live Now (1986).

Further:

— TBD.

Truong, Monique. The Book of Salt
Primary Reading: Truong, Monique. The Book of Salt (2003).

Further:

— TBD.

Updike, John. Rabbit Angstrom
Primary Reading: Updike, John. Rabbit Angstrom (1960-2001).

Further:

— TBD.

Vollmann, William T. Europe Central
Primary Reading: Vollmann, William T. Europe Central (2005).

Further:

— TBD.

Whitehead, Colson. The Underground Railroad
Primary Reading: Whitehead, Colson. The Underground Railroad (2016).

Further:

— TBD.

Wideman, John Edgar. Philadelphia Fire
Primary Reading: Wideman, John Edgar. Philadelphia Fire (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Fiction | Asia

Adiga, Aravind. The White Tiger
Primary Reading: Adiga, Aravind. The White Tiger (2008).

Further:

— TBD.

Desai, Kiran. The Inheritance of Loss
Primary Reading: Desai, Kiran. The Inheritance of Loss (2006).

Further:

— TBD.

Murakami, Haruki. 1Q84
Primary Reading: Murakami, Haruki. 1Q84 (2009-2010).

Further:

— TBD.

Fiction | Australasia/Oceania

Carey, Peter. True History of the Kelly Gang
Primary Reading: Carey, Peter. True History of the Kelly Gang (2000).

Further:

— TBD.

Catton, Eleanor. The Luminaries
Primary Reading: Catton, Eleanor. The Luminaries (2013).

Further:

— TBD.

Hazzard, Shirley. The Great Fire
Primary Reading: Hazzard, Shirley. The Great Fire (2003).

Further:

— TBD.

Fiction | Europe

Ali, Monica. Brick Lane
Primary Reading: Ali, Monica. Brick Lane (2003).

Further:

— TBD.

Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go
Primary Reading: Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go (2005).

Further:

— TBD.

Kureishi, Hanif. The Buddha of Suburbia
Primary Reading: Kureishi, Hanif. The Buddha of Suburbia (1990).

Further:

— TBD.

Smith, Zadie. White Teeth
Primary Reading: Smith, Zadie. White Teeth (2000).

Further:

— TBD.

Tóibín, Colm. The Master
Primary Reading: Tóibín, Colm. The Master (2004).

Further:

— TBD.

And furthermore, by using or visiting, in any way, The Ikoku Foundations, any part or section of The Ikoku Foundations, any part or section of their divisions, series, subsidiaries or affiliates, as well as any of their Products or Services, you accept and agree to the terms, conditions and requirements described above, and in these Codes and Policies, in their entirety without modification.

The Natural Sciences Paper

Sciences | Natural

Provided below are definitions of terms to be used for purposes of these Codes and Policies, all official documents, policies and statements, and for any action, activity, communication, operation or participation in, within, with, for, on behalf of, in reference to or otherwise pertaining to The Ikoku Foundations, their divisions, series, subsidiaries and affiliates, and their Products and Services, including the Sites.

Core | Listings

I — Writing & Orature

Framing | Methods | Theories

On Monogenesis/Polygenesis
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Symbol/Script/Writing
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Writing/Literature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Orature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Africa

Ptahhotep. The Maxims of Ptahhotep
Primary Reading: Ptahhotep. The Maxims of Ptahhotep (2375-2350 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Americas

Spoiler title
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Asia

Spoiler title
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Australasia

Spoiler title
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Orature | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

II — BCE till 600AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

III — 600AD-1599AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Africa

Ethiopian translation from Greek. The Book of the Wise Philosophers
Primary Reading: Ethiopian translation from Greek. The Book of the Wise Philosophers (1510s).

Further:

— TBD.

Ethiopian translation from Greek. The Life and Maxims of Skendes
Primary Reading: Ethiopian translation from Greek. The Life and Maxims of Skendes (1000s).

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

IV — 1600AD-1699AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Africa

Haywot, Walda. Treatise of Walda Haywot
Primary Reading: Haywot, Walda. Treatise of Walda Haywot (late 1600s).

Further:

— TBD.

Yacob, Zera. Hatätä or Inquiry
Primary Reading: Yacob, Zera. Hatätä or Inquiry (1667).

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

V — 1700AD-1799AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VI — 1800AD-1899AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VII — 1900AD-1945AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VIII — 1945AD-present

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Ethics | Value | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Metaphysics | Formal | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Asia

Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Physics | Natural | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

The Social Sciences Paper

Sciences | Social

Provided below are definitions of terms to be used for purposes of these Codes and Policies, all official documents, policies and statements, and for any action, activity, communication, operation or participation in, within, with, for, on behalf of, in reference to or otherwise pertaining to The Ikoku Foundations, their divisions, series, subsidiaries and affiliates, and their Products and Services, including the Sites.

Core | Listings

I — Early & Orature

Framing | Methods | Theories

On Monogenesis/Polygenesis
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Symbol/Script/Writing
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Writing/Literature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Orature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Africa

Egyptians. Old Kingdom and Pyramid Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Old Kingdom and Pyramid Texts (?-2400 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Middle Kingdom and Coffin Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Middle Kingdom and Coffin Texts and Book of Two Ways (?-2100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. New Kingdom Texts and Book of the Dead
Primary Reading: Egyptians. New Kingdom Texts and Book of the Dead (?-1550 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Late Period and Ptolemaic Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Late Period and Ptolemaic Texts and Book of Breathing and Book of Traversing Eternity (?-350 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Americas

Lakota. Wakan Tanka (or Great Mystery) and Lakota Myths
Primary Reading: Lakota. Wakan Tanka (or Great Mystery) and Lakota Myths (?-).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Asia

Sumerians/Enheduanna. The Sumerian Temple Hymns
Primary Reading: Sumerians/Enheduanna. The Sumerian Temple Hymns (2300 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Australasia

Aboriginal Australians. The Dreaming and The Rainbow Serpent Stories
Primary Reading: Aboriginal Australians. The Dreaming and The Rainbow Serpent Stories (?-1890s).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Europe

Greeks/Hesiod. Theogony and Works and Days
Primary Reading: Hesiod. Theogony and Works and Days (700 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Greeks. The Homeric Hymns
Primary Reading: Greeks. The Homeric Hymns (600s-522 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

II — BCE till 600AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

The Odù Ifá
Primary Reading: The Odù Ifá (?-1400s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Americas

Yucatec Maya. The Dresden Codex
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Madrid Codex (?1250-1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. The Madrid Codex
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Madrid Codex (?1250-1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. The Paris Codex
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Paris Codex (?1185-1450).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: First Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: First Manzil (Al-Fatihah, Al-Baqarah, Al Imran, An-Nisa’).

Further:

— TBD.

The Tipiṭaka: Vinaya Piṭaka
Primary Reading: The Tipiṭaka: Vinaya Piṭaka (Pāli Canon) (400s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Rigveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Rigveda (1500-1000 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

Romans/Interpretatio romana. Roman calendar and Funerary Stele of Licinia Amias
Primary Reading: Romans/Interpretatio romana. Roman calendar (700BCE/450BCE/46BCE-321) and Funerary Stele of Licinia Amias (200s).

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

Romans. The Edicts of Serdica, of Milan and of Thessalonica
Primary Reading: Romans. The Edicts of Serdica (311), of Milan (313) and of Thessalonica (380).

Further:

— TBD.

III — 600AD-1599AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

The Odù Ifá
Primary Reading: The Odù Ifá (?-1400s).

Further:

— Ellis, AB. Yoruba-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa: Their Religion, Manners, Customs, Laws, Languages, Etc (1894): Chapters 1-8.

— Matory, J Lorand. “The English Professors of Brazil: On the Diasporic Roots of the Yorùbá Nation.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41/1 (January 1999): 72-103.

Wyndham, John. Myths of Ífè
Primary Reading: Wyndham, John. Myths of Ífè (1921).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Americas

Yucatec Maya. Books of Chilam Balam
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. Books of Chilam Balam (1600s-1700s).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. Ritual of the Bacabs
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. Ritual of the Bacabs (?-1914).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. The Maya Codex of Mexico
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Maya Codex of Mexico (?-1960s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Historical Books
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Historical Books (Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Tobias, Judith, Esther, Maccabees, Esdras).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: Second Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Second Manzil (Al-Ma’ida, Al-An’am, Al-A’raf, Al-Anfal, At-Tawba).

Further:

— TBD.

The Tipiṭaka: Sutta Piṭaka
Primary Reading: The Tipiṭaka: Sutta Piṭaka (Pāli Canon) (400s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Yajurveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Yajurveda (1200-800 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Gutenberg Bible
Primary Reading: The Gutenberg Bible (1450s).

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— Mudimbe, VY. The Idea of Africa, Chapter 1 (1994): 1-30.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

Roman Catholic Bulls. Romanus Pontifex (1454) Inter Coetera (1493) and Inter Coetera II (1493)
Primary Reading: Roman Catholic Bulls. Romanus Pontifex (1454) Inter Coetera (1493) and Inter Coetera II (1493).

Further:

— Mudimbe, VY. The Idea of Africa, Chapter 1 (1994): 30-37.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

Luther, Martin. The Ninety-five Theses
Primary Reading: Luther, Martin. The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences (1517).

Further:

— TBD.

IV — 1600AD-1699AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

The Odù Ifá
Primary Reading: The Odù Ifá (?-1400s).

Further:

Barber, Karin. “Discursive Strategies in the Texts of Ifá and in the ‘Holy Book of Odù’ of the African Church of Ọ̀rúnmìlà.” In Self Assertion and Brokerage: Early Cultural Nationalism in West Africa. Ed. by P. F. De Moraes and Karin Barber. Birmingham: Center for West African Studies, University of Birmingham. pp. 196-224

Sources | Americas

Quechua/Ávila. Huarochirí Manuscript
Primary Reading: Quechua/Ávila. Huarochirí Manuscript (late 1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Poetic or Wisdom Books
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Poetic or Wisdom Books (Job, Psalms, Prayer of Manasseh, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: Third Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Third Manzil (Yunus, Hud, Yusuf, Ar-Ra’d, Ibrahim, Al-Hijr, An-Nahl).

Further:

— TBD.

The Tipiṭaka: Abhidhamma Piṭaka
Primary Reading: The Tipiṭaka: Abhidhamma Piṭaka (Pāli Canon) (200s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Samaveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Samaveda (1200-1000 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

V — 1700AD-1799AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Lijadu, Emmanuel Moses. Ifá
Primary Reading: Lijadu, Emmanuel Moses. Ifá (1897).

Further:

— Adéẹ̀kọ́, Adélékè. “‘Writing’ and ‘Reference’ in Ifá Divination Chants.” Oral Tradition, 25/2 (2010): 283-303.

Sources | Americas

Aztecs. The Codex Borgia Group
Primary Reading: Aztecs. The Codex Borgia Group (?-1831).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Major Prophets and Minor Prophets
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Major Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel) and Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: Fourth Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Fourth Manzil (Al Isra’, Al-Kahf, Maryam, Ta-Ha, Al-Anbiya, Al-Hajj, Al-Mu’minun, An-Nur, Al-Furqan).

Further:

— TBD.

The Mahāyāna Sūtras
Primary Reading: The Mahāyāna Sūtras.

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Atharvaveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Atharvaveda (1000-900 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VI — 1800AD-1899AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá: An Exposition of Ifá Literary Corpus
Primary Reading: Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá: An Exposition of Ifá Literary Corpus (1976).

Further:

— TBD.

Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá Divination Poetry
Primary Reading: Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá Divination Poetry (1977).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Americas

Aztecs. The Florentine Codex
Primary Reading: Aztecs. The Florentine Codex (?-late 1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Aztecs. The Codex Chimalpopoca
Primary Reading: Aztecs. The Codex Chimalpopoca (?-1849).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Qur’an: Fifth Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Fifth Manzil (Ash-Shuara’, An-Naml, Al-Qasas, Al-Ankabut, Ar-Rum, Luqmaan, As-Sajda, Al-Ahzaab, Saba’, Faatir, Ya-Seen).

Further:

— TBD.

The Platform Sutra
Primary Reading: The Platform Sutra.

Further:

— TBD.

The Upanishads (or Vedānta)
Primary Reading: The Upanishads (or Vedānta).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Bible: The Gospels and The Acts of the Apostles
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Gospels and The Acts of the Apostles.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba. Masâalik Al Jinân or The Itineraries to Paradise
Primary Reading: Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba. Masâalik Al Jinân or The Itineraries to Paradise (1885-1887).

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VII — 1900AD-1945AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Candomblé/Mother Menininha do Gantois. Terreiro do Gantois
Primary Reading: Candomblé/Mother Menininha do Gantois. Terreiro do Gantois.

Further:

— Dantas, Beatriz Góis and Stephen Berg. Nagô Grandma and White Papa: Candomblé and the Creation of Afro-Brazilian Identity (2009).

— Matory, J. Lorand. Black Atlantic Religion: Tradition, Transnationalism, and Matriarchy in the Afro-Brazilian Candomble (2005).

— Parés, Luis Nicolau and Richard Vernon. The Formation of Candomblé: Vodun History and Ritual in Brazil (2013).

Sources | Americas

K’iche/Chonay. Título de Totonicapán
Primary Reading: K’iche/Chonay. Título de Totonicapán (?-1834).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Qur’an: Sixth Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Sixth Manzil (As-Saaffaat, Saad, Az-Zumar, Ghafir, Fussilat, Ash_Shooraa, Az-Zukhruf, Ad-Dukhaan, Al-Jaathiyah, Al-Ahqaaf, Muhammad, Al-Fath, Al-Hujurat).

Further:

— TBD.

The Kōan collections and The Four Texts of the Zen Sect
Primary Reading: The Kōan collections and The Four Texts of the Zen Sect.

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedic Sutras
Primary Reading: The Vedic Sutras.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Bible: The Epistles of Paul
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Epistles of Paul.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VIII — 1945AD-present

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Santería/Rómula Lachatañeré. Manuel de santería
Primary Reading: Santería/Rómula Lachatañeré. Manuel de santería (1942).

Further:

— Cohen, Peter F. “Orisha Journeys: The Role of Travel in the Birth of Yorùbá-Atlantic Religions.” Archives De Sciences Sociales Des Religions 47, no. 117 (2002): 17-36.

— Apter, Andrew. “Yoruba Ethnogenesis from Within.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 55(2), (2013): 356-387.

— Cohen, Peter F. “The Orisha Atlantic: Historicizing the Roots of a Global Religion.” In Thomas J Csordas (ed.), Transnational Transcendence: Essays on Religion and Globalization (2009): 205-230.

— Ojo, Olatunji. “The Root Is Also Here: The Nondiaspora Foundations of Yoruba Ethnicity.” In Toyin Falola and Aribidesi Usman (eds.) Movements, Borders, and Identities in Africa (2009): 53–80.

Shango/Trinidad. insert source
Primary Reading: Shango/Trinidad. [insert source]

Further:

— Aiyejina, Funso, Rawle Gibbons and Baba Sam Phills. “Context and Meaning in Trinidad Yoruba Songs: ‘Peter Was a Fisherman’ and ‘Songs of the Orisha Palais’.” Research in African Literatures 40, no. 1 (2009): 127-36.

— Bazinet, Ryan. “Shango Dances Across the Water: Music and the Re-Construction of Trinidadian Orisha in New York City.” In Kamille Gentles-Peart and Maurice L. Hall (eds). Re-Constructing Place and Space (2012).

— Houk, James. Spirits, Blood, and Drums: The Orisha Religion in Trinidad (1995).

— Pollak-Eltz, Angelina. “The Shango Cult and Other African Rituals in Trinidad, Grenada, and Carriacou and their Possible Influence on the Spiritual Baptist Faith.” Caribbean Quarterly 39, no. 3/4 (1993): 12-26.

Voudou/Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. Vodou Songs
Primary Reading: Voudou/Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English. Edited by Bartley Joanne, Ballengee Chris, Brissault Vanessa, Felker-Kantor Erica, Tarter Andrew, Hansen Quinn, and Warwick Kat (2012).

Further:

— Apter, Andrew. “On African Origins: Creolization and Connaissance in Haitian Vodou.” American Ethnologist 29, no. 2 (2002): 233-60.

— Fandrich, Ina J. “Yorùbá Influences on Haitian Vodou and New Orleans Voodoo.” Journal of Black Studies 37, no. 5 (2007): 775-91.

— Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. “Vodou and Progress: History, Language, Structure and Text in Haitian Religion” published as “The Scapegoating of Haitian Vodou Religion: David Brooks’s (2010) Claim That ‘Voodoo’ Is a ‘Progress-Resistant’ Cultural Influence.” Journal of Black Studies 46, no. 1 (2015): 3-22.

Sources | Americas

K’iche/Ximénez. Popol Vuh
Primary Reading: K’iche/Ximénez. Popol Vuh (?-1550s/1701).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec-Mayans. Books of Chilam Balam
Primary Reading: Yucatec-Mayans. Books of Chilam Balam (?-1700s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Qur’an: Seventh Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Seventh Manzil (Qaaf, Adh-Dhaariyaat, At-Toor, An-Najm, Al-Qamar, Ar-Rahman, Al-Waqi’a, Al-Hadeed, Al-Mujadila, Al-Hashr, Al-Mumtahanah, As-Saff, Al-Jumu’ah, Al-Munafiqoon, At-Taghabun, At-Talaq, At-Tahreem, Al-Mulk, Al-Qalam, Al-Haaqqa, Al-Ma’aarij, Nooh, Al-Jinn, Al-Muzammil, Al-Muddaththir, Al-Qiyamah, Al-Insaan, Ad-Dahr, Al-Mursalaat, An-Naba’, An-Naazi’aat, ‘Abasa, At-Takweer, Al-Infitaar, Al-Mutaffifeen, Al-Inshiqaaq, Al-Burooj, At-Taariq, Al-A’laa, Al-Ghaashiyah, Al-Fajr, Al-Balad, Ash-Shams, Al-Layl, Ad-Dhuha, Al-Inshirah, At-Teen, A-Alaq, Al-Qadr, Al-Bayyinahh, Al-Zalzalah, Al-‘Aadiyaat, Al-Qaari’ah, At-Takaathur, Al-‘Asr, Al-Humazah, Al-Feel, Al-Quraysh, Al-Maa’oon, Al-Kawthar, Al-Kaafiroon, An-Nasr, Al-Masad, Al-lkhlaas, Al-Lahab, At-Tawhid, Al-Falaq, Al-Naas).

Further:

— TBD.

The Post-Vedic Sutras
Primary Reading: The Post-Vedic Sutras.

Further:

— TBD.

The Talmud
Primary Reading: The Talmud.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Bible: The General Epistles and The Book of Revelation
Primary Reading: The Bible: The General Epistles and The Book of Revelation.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

The Technological Sciences Paper

Sciences | Technological

Provided below are definitions of terms to be used for purposes of these Codes and Policies, all official documents, policies and statements, and for any action, activity, communication, operation or participation in, within, with, for, on behalf of, in reference to or otherwise pertaining to The Ikoku Foundations, their divisions, series, subsidiaries and affiliates, and their Products and Services, including the Sites.

Core | Listings

I — Early & Orature

Framing | Methods | Theories

On Monogenesis/Polygenesis
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Symbol/Script/Writing
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Writing/Literature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

On Orature
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Africa

Egyptians. Old Kingdom and Pyramid Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Old Kingdom and Pyramid Texts (?-2400 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Middle Kingdom and Coffin Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Middle Kingdom and Coffin Texts and Book of Two Ways (?-2100 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. New Kingdom Texts and Book of the Dead
Primary Reading: Egyptians. New Kingdom Texts and Book of the Dead (?-1550 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Egyptians. Late Period and Ptolemaic Texts
Primary Reading: Egyptians. Late Period and Ptolemaic Texts and Book of Breathing and Book of Traversing Eternity (?-350 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Americas

Lakota. Wakan Tanka (or Great Mystery) and Lakota Myths
Primary Reading: Lakota. Wakan Tanka (or Great Mystery) and Lakota Myths (?-).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Asia

Sumerians/Enheduanna. The Sumerian Temple Hymns
Primary Reading: Sumerians/Enheduanna. The Sumerian Temple Hymns (2300 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Australasia

Aboriginal Australians. The Dreaming and The Rainbow Serpent Stories
Primary Reading: Aboriginal Australians. The Dreaming and The Rainbow Serpent Stories (?-1890s).

Further:

— TBD.

Early Religion | Europe

Greeks/Hesiod. Theogony and Works and Days
Primary Reading: Hesiod. Theogony and Works and Days (700 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Greeks. The Homeric Hymns
Primary Reading: Greeks. The Homeric Hymns (600s-522 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

II — BCE till 600AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

The Odù Ifá
Primary Reading: The Odù Ifá (?-1400s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Americas

Yucatec Maya. The Dresden Codex
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Madrid Codex (?1250-1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. The Madrid Codex
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Madrid Codex (?1250-1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. The Paris Codex
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Paris Codex (?1185-1450).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: First Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: First Manzil (Al-Fatihah, Al-Baqarah, Al Imran, An-Nisa’).

Further:

— TBD.

The Tipiṭaka: Vinaya Piṭaka
Primary Reading: The Tipiṭaka: Vinaya Piṭaka (Pāli Canon) (400s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Rigveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Rigveda (1500-1000 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

Romans/Interpretatio romana. Roman calendar and Funerary Stele of Licinia Amias
Primary Reading: Romans/Interpretatio romana. Roman calendar (700BCE/450BCE/46BCE-321) and Funerary Stele of Licinia Amias (200s).

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

Romans. The Edicts of Serdica, of Milan and of Thessalonica
Primary Reading: Romans. The Edicts of Serdica (311), of Milan (313) and of Thessalonica (380).

Further:

— TBD.

III — 600AD-1599AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

The Odù Ifá
Primary Reading: The Odù Ifá (?-1400s).

Further:

— Ellis, AB. Yoruba-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa: Their Religion, Manners, Customs, Laws, Languages, Etc (1894): Chapters 1-8.

— Matory, J Lorand. “The English Professors of Brazil: On the Diasporic Roots of the Yorùbá Nation.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41/1 (January 1999): 72-103.

Wyndham, John. Myths of Ífè
Primary Reading: Wyndham, John. Myths of Ífè (1921).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Americas

Yucatec Maya. Books of Chilam Balam
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. Books of Chilam Balam (1600s-1700s).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. Ritual of the Bacabs
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. Ritual of the Bacabs (?-1914).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec Maya. The Maya Codex of Mexico
Primary Reading: Yucatec Maya. The Maya Codex of Mexico (?-1960s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Historical Books
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Historical Books (Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Tobias, Judith, Esther, Maccabees, Esdras).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: Second Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Second Manzil (Al-Ma’ida, Al-An’am, Al-A’raf, Al-Anfal, At-Tawba).

Further:

— TBD.

The Tipiṭaka: Sutta Piṭaka
Primary Reading: The Tipiṭaka: Sutta Piṭaka (Pāli Canon) (400s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Yajurveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Yajurveda (1200-800 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Gutenberg Bible
Primary Reading: The Gutenberg Bible (1450s).

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— Mudimbe, VY. The Idea of Africa, Chapter 1 (1994): 1-30.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

Roman Catholic Bulls. Romanus Pontifex (1454) Inter Coetera (1493) and Inter Coetera II (1493)
Primary Reading: Roman Catholic Bulls. Romanus Pontifex (1454) Inter Coetera (1493) and Inter Coetera II (1493).

Further:

— Mudimbe, VY. The Idea of Africa, Chapter 1 (1994): 30-37.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

Luther, Martin. The Ninety-five Theses
Primary Reading: Luther, Martin. The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences (1517).

Further:

— TBD.

IV — 1600AD-1699AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

The Odù Ifá
Primary Reading: The Odù Ifá (?-1400s).

Further:

Barber, Karin. “Discursive Strategies in the Texts of Ifá and in the ‘Holy Book of Odù’ of the African Church of Ọ̀rúnmìlà.” In Self Assertion and Brokerage: Early Cultural Nationalism in West Africa. Ed. by P. F. De Moraes and Karin Barber. Birmingham: Center for West African Studies, University of Birmingham. pp. 196-224

Sources | Americas

Quechua/Ávila. Huarochirí Manuscript
Primary Reading: Quechua/Ávila. Huarochirí Manuscript (late 1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Poetic or Wisdom Books
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Poetic or Wisdom Books (Job, Psalms, Prayer of Manasseh, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: Third Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Third Manzil (Yunus, Hud, Yusuf, Ar-Ra’d, Ibrahim, Al-Hijr, An-Nahl).

Further:

— TBD.

The Tipiṭaka: Abhidhamma Piṭaka
Primary Reading: The Tipiṭaka: Abhidhamma Piṭaka (Pāli Canon) (200s BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Samaveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Samaveda (1200-1000 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

V — 1700AD-1799AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Lijadu, Emmanuel Moses. Ifá
Primary Reading: Lijadu, Emmanuel Moses. Ifá (1897).

Further:

— Adéẹ̀kọ́, Adélékè. “‘Writing’ and ‘Reference’ in Ifá Divination Chants.” Oral Tradition, 25/2 (2010): 283-303.

Sources | Americas

Aztecs. The Codex Borgia Group
Primary Reading: Aztecs. The Codex Borgia Group (?-1831).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Bible: The Major Prophets and Minor Prophets
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Major Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel) and Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi).

Further:

— TBD.

The Qur’an: Fourth Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Fourth Manzil (Al Isra’, Al-Kahf, Maryam, Ta-Ha, Al-Anbiya, Al-Hajj, Al-Mu’minun, An-Nur, Al-Furqan).

Further:

— TBD.

The Mahāyāna Sūtras
Primary Reading: The Mahāyāna Sūtras.

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedas: Atharvaveda
Primary Reading: The Vedas: Atharvaveda (1000-900 BCE).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VI — 1800AD-1899AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá: An Exposition of Ifá Literary Corpus
Primary Reading: Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá: An Exposition of Ifá Literary Corpus (1976).

Further:

— TBD.

Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá Divination Poetry
Primary Reading: Abímbọ́ọ́lá, Wande. Ifá Divination Poetry (1977).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Americas

Aztecs. The Florentine Codex
Primary Reading: Aztecs. The Florentine Codex (?-late 1500s).

Further:

— TBD.

Aztecs. The Codex Chimalpopoca
Primary Reading: Aztecs. The Codex Chimalpopoca (?-1849).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Qur’an: Fifth Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Fifth Manzil (Ash-Shuara’, An-Naml, Al-Qasas, Al-Ankabut, Ar-Rum, Luqmaan, As-Sajda, Al-Ahzaab, Saba’, Faatir, Ya-Seen).

Further:

— TBD.

The Platform Sutra
Primary Reading: The Platform Sutra.

Further:

— TBD.

The Upanishads (or Vedānta)
Primary Reading: The Upanishads (or Vedānta).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Bible: The Gospels and The Acts of the Apostles
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Gospels and The Acts of the Apostles.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba. Masâalik Al Jinân or The Itineraries to Paradise
Primary Reading: Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba. Masâalik Al Jinân or The Itineraries to Paradise (1885-1887).

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VII — 1900AD-1945AD

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Candomblé/Mother Menininha do Gantois. Terreiro do Gantois
Primary Reading: Candomblé/Mother Menininha do Gantois. Terreiro do Gantois.

Further:

— Dantas, Beatriz Góis and Stephen Berg. Nagô Grandma and White Papa: Candomblé and the Creation of Afro-Brazilian Identity (2009).

— Matory, J. Lorand. Black Atlantic Religion: Tradition, Transnationalism, and Matriarchy in the Afro-Brazilian Candomble (2005).

— Parés, Luis Nicolau and Richard Vernon. The Formation of Candomblé: Vodun History and Ritual in Brazil (2013).

Sources | Americas

K’iche/Chonay. Título de Totonicapán
Primary Reading: K’iche/Chonay. Título de Totonicapán (?-1834).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Qur’an: Sixth Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Sixth Manzil (As-Saaffaat, Saad, Az-Zumar, Ghafir, Fussilat, Ash_Shooraa, Az-Zukhruf, Ad-Dukhaan, Al-Jaathiyah, Al-Ahqaaf, Muhammad, Al-Fath, Al-Hujurat).

Further:

— TBD.

The Kōan collections and The Four Texts of the Zen Sect
Primary Reading: The Kōan collections and The Four Texts of the Zen Sect.

Further:

— TBD.

The Vedic Sutras
Primary Reading: The Vedic Sutras.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Bible: The Epistles of Paul
Primary Reading: The Bible: The Epistles of Paul.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

VIII — 1945AD-present

Framing | Methods | Theories

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Africa

Santería/Rómula Lachatañeré. Manuel de santería
Primary Reading: Santería/Rómula Lachatañeré. Manuel de santería (1942).

Further:

— Cohen, Peter F. “Orisha Journeys: The Role of Travel in the Birth of Yorùbá-Atlantic Religions.” Archives De Sciences Sociales Des Religions 47, no. 117 (2002): 17-36.

— Apter, Andrew. “Yoruba Ethnogenesis from Within.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 55(2), (2013): 356-387.

— Cohen, Peter F. “The Orisha Atlantic: Historicizing the Roots of a Global Religion.” In Thomas J Csordas (ed.), Transnational Transcendence: Essays on Religion and Globalization (2009): 205-230.

— Ojo, Olatunji. “The Root Is Also Here: The Nondiaspora Foundations of Yoruba Ethnicity.” In Toyin Falola and Aribidesi Usman (eds.) Movements, Borders, and Identities in Africa (2009): 53–80.

Shango/Trinidad. insert source
Primary Reading: Shango/Trinidad. [insert source]

Further:

— Aiyejina, Funso, Rawle Gibbons and Baba Sam Phills. “Context and Meaning in Trinidad Yoruba Songs: ‘Peter Was a Fisherman’ and ‘Songs of the Orisha Palais’.” Research in African Literatures 40, no. 1 (2009): 127-36.

— Bazinet, Ryan. “Shango Dances Across the Water: Music and the Re-Construction of Trinidadian Orisha in New York City.” In Kamille Gentles-Peart and Maurice L. Hall (eds). Re-Constructing Place and Space (2012).

— Houk, James. Spirits, Blood, and Drums: The Orisha Religion in Trinidad (1995).

— Pollak-Eltz, Angelina. “The Shango Cult and Other African Rituals in Trinidad, Grenada, and Carriacou and their Possible Influence on the Spiritual Baptist Faith.” Caribbean Quarterly 39, no. 3/4 (1993): 12-26.

Voudou/Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. Vodou Songs
Primary Reading: Voudou/Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English. Edited by Bartley Joanne, Ballengee Chris, Brissault Vanessa, Felker-Kantor Erica, Tarter Andrew, Hansen Quinn, and Warwick Kat (2012).

Further:

— Apter, Andrew. “On African Origins: Creolization and Connaissance in Haitian Vodou.” American Ethnologist 29, no. 2 (2002): 233-60.

— Fandrich, Ina J. “Yorùbá Influences on Haitian Vodou and New Orleans Voodoo.” Journal of Black Studies 37, no. 5 (2007): 775-91.

— Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. “Vodou and Progress: History, Language, Structure and Text in Haitian Religion” published as “The Scapegoating of Haitian Vodou Religion: David Brooks’s (2010) Claim That ‘Voodoo’ Is a ‘Progress-Resistant’ Cultural Influence.” Journal of Black Studies 46, no. 1 (2015): 3-22.

Sources | Americas

K’iche/Ximénez. Popol Vuh
Primary Reading: K’iche/Ximénez. Popol Vuh (?-1550s/1701).

Further:

— TBD.

Yucatec-Mayans. Books of Chilam Balam
Primary Reading: Yucatec-Mayans. Books of Chilam Balam (?-1700s).

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Asia

The Qur’an: Seventh Manzil
Primary Reading: The Qur’an: Seventh Manzil (Qaaf, Adh-Dhaariyaat, At-Toor, An-Najm, Al-Qamar, Ar-Rahman, Al-Waqi’a, Al-Hadeed, Al-Mujadila, Al-Hashr, Al-Mumtahanah, As-Saff, Al-Jumu’ah, Al-Munafiqoon, At-Taghabun, At-Talaq, At-Tahreem, Al-Mulk, Al-Qalam, Al-Haaqqa, Al-Ma’aarij, Nooh, Al-Jinn, Al-Muzammil, Al-Muddaththir, Al-Qiyamah, Al-Insaan, Ad-Dahr, Al-Mursalaat, An-Naba’, An-Naazi’aat, ‘Abasa, At-Takweer, Al-Infitaar, Al-Mutaffifeen, Al-Inshiqaaq, Al-Burooj, At-Taariq, Al-A’laa, Al-Ghaashiyah, Al-Fajr, Al-Balad, Ash-Shams, Al-Layl, Ad-Dhuha, Al-Inshirah, At-Teen, A-Alaq, Al-Qadr, Al-Bayyinahh, Al-Zalzalah, Al-‘Aadiyaat, Al-Qaari’ah, At-Takaathur, Al-‘Asr, Al-Humazah, Al-Feel, Al-Quraysh, Al-Maa’oon, Al-Kawthar, Al-Kaafiroon, An-Nasr, Al-Masad, Al-lkhlaas, Al-Lahab, At-Tawhid, Al-Falaq, Al-Naas).

Further:

— TBD.

The Post-Vedic Sutras
Primary Reading: The Post-Vedic Sutras.

Further:

— TBD.

The Talmud
Primary Reading: The Talmud.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Sources | Europe

The Bible: The General Epistles and The Book of Revelation
Primary Reading: The Bible: The General Epistles and The Book of Revelation.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Africa

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Americas

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Asia

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Australasia/Oceania

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Interpretations | Practices | Europe

TBD
Primary Reading: TBD.

Further:

— TBD.

Apple (Michał Grosicki)
Apple (Michał Grosicki)
Letters (Jason Leung)
Letters (Jason Leung)
Type Letters (Amador Loureiro)
Type Letters (Amador Loureiro)
Printing Press (Kelly Sikkema)
Printing Press (Kelly Sikkema)
Pencils In Cup
Pencils In Cup
Children Learning (Santi Vedri)
Children Learning (Santi Vedri)
Children at School, Kampala, Uganda (Bill Wegener)
Children at School, Kampala, Uganda (Bill Wegener)
Children Gathering, Sidamo, Ethiopia (Trevor Cole)
Children Gathering, Sidamo, Ethiopia (Trevor Cole)
Wearing Jackets, Brooklyn, USA, June 2018 (Roxana Crusemire)
Wearing Jackets, Brooklyn, USA, June 2018 (Roxana Crusemire)
Womens March, Seattle, Washington, USA, January 2017 (Jose Moreno)
Womens March, Seattle, Washington, USA, January 2017 (Jose Moreno)
At the Mona Lisa, Louvre, Paris, France, 2018 (AC Almelor)
At the Mona Lisa, Louvre, Paris, France, 2018 (AC Almelor)
Bibliotheque (Eugenio Mazzone)
Bibliotheque (Eugenio Mazzone)
Stairs, 2018 (Monty Lov)
Stairs, 2018 (Monty Lov)
At MOMA, NYC, USA, 2017 (Daniel H Tong)
At MOMA, NYC, USA, 2017 (Daniel H Tong)
Still of Actor, Macbeth, Undated (New Public Library)
Still of Actor, Macbeth, Undated (New Public Library)
JohnMarkSmithKuznietsov2017
Floating Book, The Last Bookstore, Los Angeles, CA, July 2018 (Jared Craig)
Floating Book, The Last Bookstore, Los Angeles, CA, July 2018 (Jared Craig)

The Papers

Overview

As mentioned above, The Papers of the Core Curriculum are designed to work in tandem with each other and provide students with a multi-year cohort experience in four areas of knowledge — Arts, Civics, Humanities and Sciences. The Core Papers provide students with an overview of their knowledge responsibility in these areas, detailing, for instance, concepts, topics, readings and sources. Students of the Core take up the task of developing and maintaining what amounts to a bibliographic mastery of — or responsibility for — the Papers, eventually able to capably and fully participate in informed discussions, evaluations and projects in each area, separately, and in an integrated manner.

Provided below is access to further details for each of the Core Papers.

Arts | All Papers

Arts | Musical

Arts | Performative

Arts | Visual

Civics | All Papers

Civics | Education

Civics | Government

Civics | International

Civics | Law

Humanities | All Papers

Humanities | History

Humanities | Literature

Humanities | Philosophy

Humanities | Religion

Sciences | All Papers

Sciences | Formal

Sciences | Medical

Sciences | Natural

Sciences | Social

Sciences | Technological

The Core Curriculum

Overview

As mentioned in our Introduction, the Core Curriculum of The Ikoku Foundations is an endeavor being developed by The Chinyere and Chinelo Ikoku Foundation and The Alvan Azinna Chibuzo Ikoku Foundation, with the support of The Chinyere and Chinelo Ikoku Charitable Trusts and The Alvan Ikoku Philanthropies, and under the direction of their Founder and President, Alvan Azinna Chibuzo Ikoku.

You may revisit our Introduction and its ensuing sections through access we provide below:

Introduction to the Core

Core Papers

Core Courses

Core Seminars

The Concentrations

The Theses

Education at the Ikoku Foundations

The establishment of The Ikoku Foundations entails emphases in education that ensure and reflect the originating charitable mission and purposes. That mission to enhance public awareness, public knowledge and public interest concerning Africa and its global diasporas, including a range of shared societies. The emphases in education inform our commitment, effort and work to achieve benefit, impact and success. And they result in the following three primary features of our communities:

01.

Education Suited to Personal and Social Benefit

Education at The Ikoku Foundations has been conceived, developed and provided in order to benefit individuals partaking of and providing knowledge, the communities they belong to and the wider societies that encompass them and others. And to produce learners and teachers who are attentive to self, mind and body, to local and global peoples, as well as the complex states and polities where those peoples reside, living shared, interdependent lives.

02.

With Respect Being Central to Learning and Teaching

At the core of each educational endeavor is a commitment to the most robust conceptions of respect, dignity and humanity, including and beyond what the law has protected and provided for, as students and teachers of The Ikoku Foundations fulfill a shared mission to serve the public interest in Africa, its global diasporas and the full range of shared societies.

03.

To Ensure a Just and Shared Future for Many

The Ikoku Foundations are inspired by peoples who have contributed to the foundations and development of their societies, despite a history of systemic difficulties. Who maintain an unyielding belief that the betterment of their human condition will foster the betterment of those living around them and will enhance the futures of the regularly disenfranchised, marginalized and underserved. The Foundations draw from these examples a vision of the public good to which education — and those who acquire, apply and provide it — may helpfully and productively contribute.

More About Us

The Ikoku Foundations

The Ikoku Charitable Trusts and The Ikoku Foundations are independent, private, non-profit organizations that serve the public interest in Africa and its global diasporas — by advancing education and research and by also supporting creative ideas, civic endeavors and emerging communities, organizations and societies.

— About Us

Nature, Scope, Means

The Ikoku Foundations’ founding mission and ongoing emphases of support are for good works that help the public understand Africa's essential place in a global future, one that is to be more knowledgeable, environmentally sound, equitable and of deep benefit across communities in shared societies.

— Founding & Overview

Charitable Mission, Purposes, Goals

To this end, The Ikoku Charitable Trusts and The Ikoku Foundations are governed by a Board of Trustees and two differently dedicated Advisory Boards of Directors — a three-board system set out and defined in the original Declaration of Trust, where the Founding and Governing Code of Ethics is also delineated.

— Governance

Leadership, Boards, Documents

The policies provided on these Sites collectively constitute the User Agreement and Code of Conduct, which govern all activity and work in and for, access to and use of, association with and reference to The Ikoku Charitable Trusts and The Ikoku Foundations. Please read them attentively.

— Policies

Codes, Conditions, Terms

Take a look, and follow The Ikoku Charitable Trusts and The Ikoku Foundations. Follow, too, media events and the coverage that precedes them or ensues. You may also sign up for newsletters, which will update you about developments at these organizations and the communities they serve.

— Communications

Press, Newsletters, Reports

Join The Ikoku Charitable Trusts and The Ikoku Foundations as a potential leader, staff, board or committee member, researcher or educator, contributor, volunteer, partner or collaborator. A career of contributing to and helping define the greater good through these organizations may be the perfect fit for you.

— Careers at the Foundations

Jobs, Volunteer, Collaboration